Monday, September 30, 2019

European Invasion

The European invasion of the New World from the 15th century to the 18th century altered the lives of the Native Americans that lived in eastern North America in more ways than they could’ve ever imagined. The New World provided raw materials, such as metal as soil. The massive invasion all begun in 1492 which was then known as the massive â€Å"white† invasion and Columbus’s discovery marked the beginning of this invasion which overtook all of North America over the next four centuries. The lives of the Native Americans would never be the same.European settlers introduced the Native American’s to new costumes but not all, if any, were good. Europeans brought Christianity into the New World and introduced the Native Americans to the religion. Europeans thought that Native Americans would be easy to convert into Christianity. â€Å"These people would be easy to convert to our holy faith† is famous quote by Jacques Cartier. Europeans didn’t con sider the Native Americans opinions or beliefs and frankly they didn’t care. Europeans also introduced the Native Americans with diseases that they weren’t use to, for example malaria and infections to smallpox and measles.Due to all of these diseases the population of North America decreased and continued to until about the 1700s. The Europeans were also armed with technology and the Native American cultures of their civilizations were lost. Europeans took over the New World between the 15th and 18th century, although that wasn’t their main objective. Their main objective was to settle and gain land in North America. With the arrival of the Europeans governments and laws were formed that didn’t benefit the Native Americans in anyway.Europeans claimed lands and Native Americans were forced to accept that the Europeans were now in charge. Europeans had all the authority in the New World. Native Americans were experiencing New World imperialism. Native Amer icans became frightened and started living in fear. Decrease in population and war resulted in the creation of new communities for instance the Choctaw. To trade a faster pace and consume more money was what the Europeans dreamed of and they didn’t want anything or anyone to get in the way of their dream. Native Americans were dragged into the expanding economy.Before the Europeans had invaded the New World, North America had a strong military force that began in the Mohawk Valley. They were known as the Iroquois and were merged by the Mohawks, the Oneidas, the Cayugas, and the Senecas, which was five Indian nations. The Native Americans were such powerful individuals but then the Europeans came along and stripped them of all their pride and altered the way they once looked at life. All and all, right before the Native Americans eyes change was happening and the way they lived was never how it once was before.The Native Americans had their land ripped from right underneath th em without any warning or any sign. Though the Native Americans of eastern North America may have had questions to why their lives were being altered. The Europeans invaded the New World during the 15th-18th century without any answers to why they were doing so. The Europeans had expectations and a plan. They didn’t stop at any means and they were determined to follow through with the success of their invasion.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Holland: Personality Types

John Holland's Personality-Type Theory John Holland's model holds that different personality types are best suited to different careers. He proposed six basic personality types and then identified careers they were best suited to enter. Holland's model is a modern trait-factor theory that has been very influential in vocational counseling. It is employed by popular interest inventories such as the Self-Directed Search, Vocational Preference Inventory, and Strong Interest Inventory. Personality Types:Holland's six personality types are arranged along a hexagonal model with opposite work environments across from one another on the hexagon and more closely related work environments next to one another. The Realistic type contrasts most sharply with the Social type, the Investigative with the Enterprising, and the Conventional with the Artistic. |   |Realistic |  |  |Investigative |   | |Conventional |   |  |  |   |Artistic | |   |Enterprising |  |  |Social |   |R ealistic These individuals deal best with an environment that is objective and physical. They like stereotypical masculine, outside and hands-on activities. They are most comfortable in work environments dealing with machines, equipment, tools, nature, athletics and crafts. They tend to dislike Social occupations. Investigative These individuals deal best with an environment that is intellectual. They enjoy working with ideas, words or symbols.They prefer scientific and theoretical pursuits that can largely be pursued through their individual effort. They tend to dislike Enterprising occupations. Social These individuals deal best with an environment that involves working with people in some helping, teaching, or serving capacity. They enjoy social interaction and being around others. They tend to dislike Realistic occupations. Conventional These individuals deal best with an environment that is concrete and predictable.They enjoy structure and routine, and often like office practic es and computational work. They tend to dislike Artistic occupations. Enterprising These individuals deal best with an environment that is adventurous, energizing and challenging. They are extroverted and enjoy power, dominance, and persuasive communication. Business and supervisory occupations are chosen, and they tend to dislike Realistic occupations. Artistic These individuals deal best with an environment that allows for creative self-expression.They like music, drama, literature, fine arts, and other self-expressive activities. They tend to dislike Conventional occupations. The Holland Hexagon |Careers and Six Basic Types | |John Holland, a career specialist, developed a theory that people and careers can be characterized by six basic â€Å"types†. These | |†types†, or Holland Codes, are commonly referred to as RIASEC to reflect the first letter in each of the themes. |   | |R for Realistic | |S for Social | | | |I for Investigative | |E for Enterprisin g | | | |A for Artistic | |C for Conventional | | | | | |Your Holland theme code will generally consist of three letters that correspond to your first, second, and third strongest | |preferences or interests. |   | |The following table describes people and work environments according to Holland's theory of Careers and Basic types: | |PEOPLE AND THEIR WORK ENVIRONMENTS* | |(based on John Holland's Career Theory) | | | |Types | |People | |Work Environments | | | | | |Realistic | | | |Strong mechanical, psychomotor, and athletic abilities; honest; loyal; like the outdoors; prefer working with machines, tools, | |plants, and animals. |   | | | |Structured; clear goals and lines of authority; work with hands, machines, or tools; casual dress; focus on tangible results; | |engineering, military, skilled trades | | | |Investigative | |Strong problem solving and analytical skills; mathematically inclined; like to observe, learn, and evaluate; prefer working | |alone; reserv ed; idea generators | |Nonstructured; research oriented; intellectual; discover, collect, and analyze ideas/data; science, math, medicine, and computer| |related; labs, universities, high tech, hospitals. | | | | |Artistic | | | |Creative; complex; emotional; intuitive; idealistic; flair for communicating ideas; prefer working independently; like to sing; | |write, act, paint, think creatively | | | |Nonstructured; creative; flexible; rewards unconventional and aesthetic values; creation of products and ideas; arts | |organizations, films/TV, publishing, advertising, museums, theater, galleries | | | | | |Social | | | |Friendly; outgoing; find fulfillment in helping others; strong verbal and personal skills; teaching abilities; impulsive | | | |Harmonious; congenial; work on people-related problems/issues; inform train, develop, cure, or enlighten others; team oriented; | |human resources; training, education, social service, hospitality, health care, nonprofit | | | | | |Enterprising | | | |Confident; assertive; sociable; speaking and leadership abilities; like to use influence; strong interpersonal skills; status | |conscious | | | |True business environment; results oriented; driven; high-quality service and product orientation; entrepreneurial; high | |prestige; power focused; sales, management, politics, finance, retail, leadership | | | | |Conventional | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Dependable; disciplined; precise; persistent orderly; efficient; practical; detail oriented; clerical and numerical abilities | |   | | | |Orderly; clear rules and policies; systematized manipulation and organization of data; control and handling of money; high | |income potential; accounting, business, finance, administration | | | | |*   From: Real People Real Jobs, by David H. Montross, Zandy B. Leibowitz, and Christopher J. Shinkman | |   | |One way to identify and probe your career type is illustrated with a hexagon. A hexagon can be used to re present the | |similarities and differences of characteristics among people, among jobs, and between people and jobs. | |Most people’s interests combine several types to some degree. The six types can be arranged around a hexagon. Types that are | |next to one another on the hexagon are most closely related.Types that are opposite one another on the hexagon are the most | |dissimilar. For example, the Realistic and Investigative types are similar, while the Realistic and Social types are often | |dissimilar. | |   | | | | | |Learning what your type is and how the types are related to each other is important to your successful career decision-making | |process. | |d | | |

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Comparative Analysis of Islamic and Conventional Bank Risk Essay

The decline of the religion has been attributed into modern times with a materialistic culture by the popular wisdom of today, the understanding of religion has embedded this view, as nature having only spiritual limits, and the worldly well being of an individual is very detached in this relation. However, this understanding of Islam religion has been misguided by many of among us in the past, as well as in the present. A critical role has been played by every religion regarding the guidance to survive in a society communally, and in the characterization of different markets of that time. In the religious regards, equal distribution of wealth and debt annulment was preached and emphasized by every religion in the past. The enforcement of the debt bond has been strongly rejected by all the beliefs and the concept of canceling the debt have been upheld by them. In the past, in order to satisfy and fulfill the financial needs of devout and pious Muslims, a concept of money depository was introduced in the Islamic civilization, which has now become a growing phenomenon of the world, that is, around 1. 6 billion Muslims in the world. The macro-economic properties of banking institution have been studies by many economists with relation to an ideal and isolated Islamic economy framework. In modern days, the working of this pioneering financial system is going on very effectively in various parts of the world. In many developed and under-developed countries, the other conventional banking systems are having this unique financing system besides them in every sector of the economy. In this regard, the comparative analysis has been done in this study, which will try to differentiate the Islamic banking system with the Conventional ones. In this study, we will try to understand and clarify the demarcation between the Islamic and Conventional Banking and the risks that are borne by these methods of banking. A financial intermediary having the aims and objectives related to the principles of Islamic law or ‘Shariah’ may be defined as an Islamic Banking System. Consequently, the zero-interest activities and operations are the key features of this distinctive banking system. However, eliminating the transactions based on interest is not the only objective of Islamic banking. The abolishment of all kinds of exploitation is also another aspect of Islamic banking system. In result, a balanced and unbiased social order is established by the system in this regard. Only the role of financier is not played by an Islamic bank. It also works as a partner in the business of an individual. Due to this, the risk between the capital owner and the entrepreneurs is involved by this system. However, the positive result of the collective efforts is also shared by the Islamic banking. Thus, the other conventional banking and interest-based system differs from the Islamic banking, as only the entrepreneur or the owner of the capital bears the risk in the conventional banking, and vice versa. However, the individual and bank shares the abovementioned with each other, which provides the entrepreneur to develop as a whole. In other way, participatory banking name can be given to the Islamic banking in this regard. In the Islamic economics, zero return on capital is not meant by the eliminating process of the interest in this unique banking system, as the pre-determination of a fixed return is forbidden for a certain amount of production in the Islamic laws. The equity based investment principle is followed by the Islamic banks. The contraction of the resources based on deals relating to the sharing of risks, and the ventures of capital is also proposed by the Islamic banking. It has been noted by the economists that economic growth and development of an individual becomes applicable and easy with the vital role that is played by the Islamic banks around the world. We can say that a relationship between finance, commerce, and industry is tried and developed by this exclusive banking system, which differs from the other conventional banking due to these characteristics of its system. The Islamic banking plays its role as an equity-based system, where the pre-determined interest rate is excluded, and the nominal value of deposits is not guaranteed. In result, changing values of the share deposits absorbs the shock to asset position immediately. Therefore, in such system, the assets and liabilities of bank will carry the same real value at all the points. However, in the more traditional and conventional banking system, a diversion can be caused between the real assets and liabilities by such shocks in the process of fixed nominal value of deposits. Therefore, the abovementioned features of this Islamic banking differs it from the traditional and conventional banking system, and so, various levels of risks are borne by these systems. Nowadays, many countries are trying to examine the possibilities of the introduction of an interest-free banking system based on the Islamic laws and principles. It has also been argued and discussed that if the Islamic financial system will be established in the various countries, it will be feasible, but also profitable for the individuals, as well as, the companies as a whole. These days, the truth of interest as an unbearable burden is being realized by the Western countries, as well as, the developing countries around the world. In this regard, all the interests have been waived by the Canada. A similar move has been made by the Australia. The suggestion of waiving off the 30 to 35% of the present interests of the debt has been officially given by the President of France. Therefore, it may be generalized that Islamic Banking and Financing System is a unique and distinctive system, which differs from the conventional banking systems around the world. In order to make a more detailed comparative view of the working and risks borne by the Islamic and Conventional Banking Systems, we will try to analyze with the help of data that represents the comparison between these two financial systems that are applied and practiced around the world. There are some different and diverse characteristics of the abovementioned two banking systems, which should be discussed in order to clarify the comparison between them. In the Islamic Financing system, the number of customers is less than the Marketing-based financing system. The ownership of the Islamic Banking is usually taken by the local or foreign individuals. However, only the local shareholders enjoy the ownership in the conventional banking system. In the Islamic banking, the integration of different activities is very high as compared to the traditional banking system. Lastly, the Islamic financing system has the high intensity of managing and bearing the risk internally, as well as externally. However, the risk is managed and borne by the Marketing-based financing system less internally and externally. Risk sharing is closely related to the risk management; no matter it may be external or internal in its nature. Development of close ties between the customers, and other interest groups may bring the risk externalization by an organization. It has also been indicated by various economists that one contributing factor that is related to the risk management is the long-term relations, which are made on the mutual dependence in an organization. From the different studies related to the Islamic Financing System, the responsibilities are shared by the junior and the senior staff jointly in organizations. In this case, the higher and lower level of management shares the risk. However, in the Marketing-based and Conventional Banking system, the internal risk is shared on a lower basis due to the centralization of power and authority, as compared to the Islamic Banking System. Conclusively, a high degree of the sharing of internal risk is characterized during managing the risk management in the Islamic Banking system as compared to the other conventional financing systems. Therefore, there are many differentiation between the Islamic and Traditional Banking systems around the world. Regarding the risk externalization, in the Islamic Banking system, the close lender-borrower relationships are characterized during the lending activities of organizations. The borrowers are also guided by the Islamic bankers apart from lending funds to them. In result, efficient network relationships create the increment of the externalization of risks relating to the partners who exchange in this regard. Therefore, in the Islamic Financing System, the degree of external risk is observed to be high. However, the formal lenders-borrowers relationships are characterized within the Conventional and Marketing-based financing system. In the result, it is a low degree of externalization of risks in this traditional banking system. In this regard, the extent of success of a banking organization is determined by the lender-borrower relationships, where the customers are given credit in this regard. Direct contacts with the various customers are maintained within the Islamic, as well as, the Conventional Financing Systems. The differentiation is observed in the Islamic Banking System while dealing with the financial activities, as the borrowed funds are monitored closely by these bankers, which results in the higher intensity of the lender-borrower relationships. In this regard, the risks are borne on a higher extent by the Islamic Banking system as compared to the conventional ones. However, the bank gets the higher profit as we have tried to discuss it in the abovementioned matter. Conclusively, the issues of fairness and justice are concerned in the Islamic principles that are related to the interest, rather than defining the efficiency narrowly. The focus is placed on the necessity of sharing the risk in a stable condition with the help of these principles, as well as, at the time of exploitation of the markets. We have also clarified that the Islamic Financing System works on the equity-based projects. However, the conventional ones prefer the debit-based schemes for the lenders and individuals. In an Islamic financing situation, the ownership is shared by the both bank and the client, and in the Conventional banking, all the equity is owned by the client, and the property value plays as a security to the bank loan. We hope that this study will help the scholars and the economists in understanding the role and differentiation of the Islamic & Conventional Banking around the world. Works Cited Ahmad, S. (1992). Towards Interest-Free Banking. New Delhi: International Islamic Publishers. Chapra, M. (2000). The Future of Economics: An Islamic Perspective. Leicester, UK: The Islamic Foundation. Dar, A. H. , and Presley, J. R. (1999). Islamic Finance: A Western Perspective. International Journal of Islamic Financial Services. Dar, A. (2002). Islamic House Financing in the United Kingdom: Problems, Challenges, and Prospects. Ahmad, K. (1994). Elimination of Riba: Concepts and Problems, Response to the Supreme Court Questionnaire. Institute of Policy Studies, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Earth's atmosphere, Clouds, and Air pressure and Wind Assignment

Earth's atmosphere, Clouds, and Air pressure and Wind - Assignment Example It keeps the temperature balanced within 24 hours as well. At different temperatures, the atmosphere is further subdivided into layers beginning from the Earth’s surface where troposphere lies between 7 to 14 kms followed by the stratosphere reaching the 50-km altitude. This layer is conducive for airplanes due to stability and with increasing temperature, only minimal amount of water vapor and other components may be detected. On top of the stratosphere is the mesosphere about 30 km in thickness which, due to unstable winds and temperature, experiences a certain degree of coldness. Within 80 to 85 kms from the ground begins the region of the thermosphere that spans a width of about 560 km or greater where it is possible for radio waves to be reflected during communication via radio system. Types of Clouds Clouds are generated every time the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor to the point they are unable to contain it in excess that phase change from vapor to liquid for water necessarily takes place during condensation stage of the water cycle. These clouds are massive by several millions of tons in weight and are classified based upon their physical appearance and altitudes. On the basis of the way they look in the sky, stratus clouds refer to the type which may be seen as flat sheets among low to high-level clouds. Another type under this classification are the cumulus clouds which are puffy, lumpy, or wavy and when enormous in size could form into towering vertical clouds with a potential to generate thunderstorm. Cirrus clouds, the third type, are known to be high and thin and cold at high levels, being made of ice crystals rather than water droplets. With reference to how high they could get from the ground level, clouds come in five types namely – high-level clouds, medium-level clouds, low-level clouds, moderate-vertical clouds, and towering-vertical clouds. It is quite interesting to find out that heavy rain, snow showers, and s now can be created with both the towering-vertical clouds and the moderate-vertical clouds. Air Pressure and Wind Systems When air exerts force on a particular area of the Earth’s surface due to the air’s weight then an atmospheric pressure emerges. This pressure increases as the layer of air becomes thick and this occurs at low altitudes whereas high places encounter low atmospheric pressure for having thin air around. A mercury barometer is the device used to measure air pressure in inches or millimeters. Wind, compared to still air, is identified with gases in motion and in our living planet, the mere flow of air is called wind. A ‘solar wind’, however, is caused by the flow of gases or particles from the sun in the outer space. Winds go by different names depending on their speeds and how long they stay on a particular spot. Gusts, for instance, are known as short bursts of fast winds, breeze for the light ones, whereas squalls are those with great str ength that last in a minute. Typhoon, hurricanes, storms, tornadoes, and cyclones are some other names given according to the wind’s nature of existence and they normally take place with high pressure differences beyond 200 miles per hour. Either hot rising air with low pressure or cool dropping air with high pressure

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Proposal of literature review of proportional hazards model Research Paper

Proposal of literature review of proportional hazards model - Research Paper Example Most survival modeling examines the relationship between survival and one or several predictors. The survival library in R and S-PLUS also holds all of the other commonly used tools of survival analysis. Below is a brief description of the proportional hazards (Schoenfeld 499). Let z = {x, y †¦} be a vector of 1 or several explanatory variables supposed to affect lifetime. These variables may be incessant, for example, temperature in engineering studies, or dosage level of a given drug in medical tests or better still, they may be indicator variables with the value 1 when a given factor or condition is present (Schoenfeld 500). Let the hazard rate for a nominal set z 0 = (x 0, y0†¦) of the variables be set by h 0 (t), with h0 (t) indicating legitimate hazard function for unspecified life distribution model. In this regard, the proportional hazards model supposes that we can note the modified hazard function for a new value of z as: Given a log-linear model assumption for g (z), and with no additional suppositions concerning the life distribution model, it will be possible to analyze investigational data and figure out utmost likelihood estimates. Additionally, it would be possible to use likelihood ratio tests to decide which explanatory variables will are extremely significant. In this study, a series of trials on treatment of cancer will be conducted. The study will seek to assess the importance of chemotherapy and radiation therapy over radiation therapy alone. The following data from the study group will be used for the purpose of elucidating the effect of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. A total of 80 patients will be treated with radiation therapy alone in the first round, while the same patients will be treated with chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Prognostic factors will be age and whether patients will have necrosis in their surgical

Type of Federalism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

Type of Federalism - Essay Example state progress and yield concerning the economy through an aimed profession made possible by earning a degree from an institution of learning, American tradition has kept up with the decentralized control of education as facilitated via local school districts. Among the types of federalism considered to help the government support such cause, cooperative federalism appears to exhibit supreme advantage for being a system designed to summon cooperation within various levels of the government. Unlike dual federalism in which limited authorities are involved between the state and national sovereignties and permissive federalism that depends upon the approbation of the national government in control of its federal counterpart despite the powers shared between them, cooperative relationship ensures balanced distribution of capacities. This way, state education may avail of flexible financial security with fair allocation of combined resources that can provide further assistance to other areas of scholastic necessities. Moreover, cooperative federalism by principle is capable of resolving complicated issues with decentralization of learning according to the manner by which major national priorities are addressed with collaborative functions amon g governments on a common

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Stock Analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Stock Analysis - Essay Example Surprisingly, the same investment could pose different influences on the over all levels of portfolio risk. Under-diversification of investments influences portfolio returns and portfolio risk in many ways. Investors in this company rend to follow in the group that refutes the standard finance theory. The theory supports the consensus of portfolios falling under proper diversification. Clearly, investors appear to focus portfolios in a small number of stocks with a maximum of three and a minimum of two stocks. The tendency dubbed ‘naive diversification’ suffers from the effect of minimum finances. Personal differences in the expected degree of risk uptake make it possible to differentiate between various degrees of risk in search of investors. Calculating the expected value of distribution helps investors to evaluate various levels of returns. Most of them use returns of expected probability distribution of portfolio. Variability around expected value involving probabili ty distribution on returns measures the risk. Standard deviation and variance remain the most accepted measures of variability. Harmonizing the choice of asset mix constituents remains another essential factor that determines portfolio return/risk as a characteristic that requires through evaluation during the construction of portfolio. The criteria applied in the choice of diversity levels of portfolio. Bonds that receive lower ratings in the ratings undertaken by official rating agencies such as Fitch are riskier investments compared to those that receive higher ratings. Bonds with lower ratings include small cap bonds while those that receive higher ratings include state treasury bonds and large cap bonds among many more.The context presents a situation where a clear difference must exist between the ability of the investor to take risk and his or her willingness to take part in the risk. Does the current risk profile

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Resume chapter 15 (trade and policy reform in latin america) Essay

Resume chapter 15 (trade and policy reform in latin america) - Essay Example The ISI saw its end during the crisis of the 80’s and the vision that it can create long term economic inefficiencies. For many years, the region relied much on exports of agricultural commodities to earn foreign revenue but most of the export sectors were often owned and controlled by foreign capitalists. However, during World War 1 and the Great Depression of the thirties, the flow of Latin American exports was disrupted reducing their export earnings. Although World War 2 increased the demand for their minerals and foodstuffs, it nevertheless dropped again after the war ended. Trade analysis or the ratio of average export prices to average import prices or terms of trade (TOT) reported an export pessimism as the prices for the raw materials Latin America exported fell. This was why the head of the UN Economic Commission on Latin America (ECLA), Prebisch, ruled that the region veer away from their dependence on raw material exports and concentrate on industrial development b y replacing imported manufactured goods with domestic ones. This was his idea of â€Å"import substitution industrialization†. ... It was criticized that governments misallocated resources when they got too involved in production decisions of companies. Other criticisms included the overvaluation of exchange rates; policies being biased in favour of urban areas; the inequality of income worsened and the controversy of widespread rent-seeking. ISI did not succeed in furthering the region’s economy, but it had less of an effect in creating the economic crisis of the 80’s than misguided macroeconomic policies of the countries in Latin America. Economic populism or the acquisition of support from labor and domestically oriented business has been blamed for such faulty macroeconomic policies. This was triggered by the deep satisfaction with the status quo due to slow growth or recession; the rejection of policy makers of traditional constraints on macro policy such as the justification of printing money due to the existence of high unemployment and idle factories offering its space without inflation. Po licy makers vowed to raise wages while freezing prices and restructure the economy by expanding the domestic production of imported goods. Still, in reality, wages were lower than before and international interventions led by IMF were implemented to stop high inflation and to end a balance of payment crisis. Being sunk in debt was blamed on the collapse of oil prices in the early eighties as well as the fact that the foreign currency owed was dollars, which had variable interest rates. The faulty macroeconomic policies of Latin America left national expenditure much higher than the national income, hence a return to growth was not very likely. In an attempt to keep government expenditures higher than warranted, many Latin American countries

Monday, September 23, 2019

Ethics in Healthcare Settings SL1 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

Ethics in Healthcare Settings SL1 - Essay Example These dilemmas revolve around four principles on ethical theory: respect for autonomy, beneficence, justice and non-maleficence (Dunbar, 2003). This paper focuses on the ethical dilemmas that result from the need to observe the dictates of the principle of respect for autonomy. Bernhofer defines autonomy as â€Å"the right of individuals to make decisions regarding their own healthcare regardless of what others think of these decisions† (2011). This gives all patients the right to self determination regardless of their capacity, age or even imprisonment (Lo, 2009). It is the right of the patients to know, consider, refuse and request any form of care or treatment being offered. Therefore, this principle, also referred to as people’s self government argues for the capacity to make informed and un-coerced decisions by any rational individual. The evaluation of this principle elicits the debate on whether this conception accurately portrays the process of decision making in healthcare setting. The principle of autonomy could be infringed when the service provider dishonors the wish of a patient on the preferred treatment. It could also occur if information would be withheld for example on the pain involved with the employment of a particular treatment approach (Sutrop, 2011). Interestingly, (Bernhofer, 2011) notes that patients get better managed and become better satisfied with full extension of autonomy rights. The author gives the example of Patient Controlled Analgesia, PCA noting that adequate ordering of analgesics and proper programming of the pump for individual patients results in personal control over pain hence effectiveness of the analgesics. Nonetheless, there arise situations where strong reasons to act in particular manner get balanced by cogent counteractive arguments (Lo, 2009). Not always would experience, common sense, being good and having good intentions guarantee appropriate response to situations

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Rebeccas Structure Essay Example for Free

Rebeccas Structure Essay Explain the effectiveness of the structure of the text, Rebecca Daphne du Maurier’s Rebecca is structured in a circular form, which is effective in displaying elements of the gothic genre and producing a sense of mystery and ambiguity. The fact that details are revealed gradually creates tension, and a desire to know, so that by the end of the novel the audience is satisfied with the complete story, despite the horrific truth regarding Rebecca’s murder. The text virtually revolves around a murder By using a BAB form, with a reference to the ending at the beginning of the novel, a sense of confusion and abstruseness is evoked among readers. The first chapter, in which the narrator supernaturally returns to Manderley, relives her experiences and mourns for the loss of such an exquisite property, is perplexing for the reader as the scene, characters and setting have not been established. This causes the audience to disregard the first chapter, as the second chapter begins with an entirely different setting and mood. Upon reaching the end of the novel, the reader grasps the meaning of the dream sequence, and the forgotten abstruseness is resolved. The audience is left content with all details of the story revealed, but, like most gothic tales, also chilled and unsettled with the shocking conclusion. Rebecca shows elements of the horror genre through the structure, in which the details are revealed throughout the story, by being analogous to many crime shows of today. In television programs such as CSI, a section of the fictional offense is shown, after which the team investigates the murder or other wrongdoing, and eventually discovers the callous yet complete truth. This order of events matches exactly with those in Rebecca, and it has the effect that we have an idea of the story, but become alarmed yet intrigued as more shocking details are revealed. The text is structured in a way that the scene is set and elaborated on throughout the book as the story and events take place, which causes the reader to experience confusion and a sense of incompetence. The fact that we are put in the place of the speaker allows us to experience everything she feels, knows and says. The narrator’s lack of knowledge concerning Rebecca’s death and murder is unnerving, as it makes us feel just as naive and oblivious as Mrs. de Winter. This is relevant to the gothic genre as it plays on the idea of being put in someone else’s place, which seems supernatural and ghost-like, as if the murder is something we can only learn about through the narrator, as everyone else is already in the know. This idea is further explored when Mrs. de Winter goes to live at Manderley, and unintentionally takes Rebecca’s place. The ingenuousness of the narrator, and how she gradually learns the truth about the murder, allows us to relate, and displays the ghost-like element of the gothic genre. In conclusion, the structure of Rebecca is effective in exemplifying the gothic genre because it references the end of the book at the beginning which creates confusion and mystery. Its effect on the readers is significant because it follows the structure of many crime shows, and makes us feel clueless, like the narrator.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

A PESTEL Analysis of the Republic of China

A PESTEL Analysis of the Republic of China China, also called Republic of China. Political framework for China is dual leadership system which exercised through the communist party of China and the central peoples government. In china, peoples Congress members at the county level are elected by voters. For every five year term, China president and vice president will be elected by peoples congress. Meanwhile, for the state council will be appointed by peoples congress as well. To obtain nationality of china is difficult according the nationality law. As a China citizens who are not allow to hold a multiple citizenship. In the aspect of motivation by government, China maintains a well diplomatic relationship with other foreign country. It participate many international organization participation such as World Trade Organization (WTO), Group of 77 (G-77) and many so on. Inter-country attitude was stable and no war occurs between other. This will leads to encourages many other foreign country invest to China. Currently, China faced some territorial disputes before. Taiwan is one of the examples which successful obtain by China. Taiwan people desire to build up the linkage such as direct transportation system with mainland China for extends their Taiwanese business. As overall for political factor, China government leadership and structures are well being currently. The political trends of China became better as before revolution. Economic factor Economic factor is the most crucial factor part determines the overall environment. For chinas economic growth, it economic keep growing rapidly due to their open for outside world which are welcome other foreign country to investment (large scale capital investment such as opening its banking sectors) and productivity growth. Besides that, Chinas governments are investing into developing the education and technology aspect. This enhances the sector of technology changes. Last but not least, China tend toward urbanization which became an important driver among the globalization market demand and produced a low cost market for other foreign country tend toward invest in China. China is the bigger population in the world which around 1.3 billion people (Wikipedia, 2010). This population factor influence the spending levels. Compare with other country, China government are invest a huge capital in technology factor and at the same times, people purchasing power are strong as well. China average annual growth about 6 percents and next of the 20 years will allow China revolution became high income nation (Lou, 2010). In the taxation part, China implements those basic taxes such as business tax and income tax. For the international taxation, China is corporate with 46 countries which sign up the double taxation agreement. Chinas trade pattern continues to grow dramatically, the size of the export and imports keep increasing. China is one of the ASEAN members so that for the tarries and barriers within the country will reduce. The top trading partners for China are European, United State, Japan, and Hong Kong. Nowadays, China GDP slows to 9.6% in the third quarter of the year 2010. The unemployment rate in China was last reported at 4.20 percent in March of 2010 and the inflation rate increase to 3.60 percent in September of 2010 (Trading economics, 2010). Social factor China demographics Overpopulation problem causes many economic crises like lack of food, water and other basic amenities. As a result of its aging population, Chinas government introduces the one child campaign due to the ever growing population of China. Government is trying to control the population by allowing just one child per family. It controls family size and the overpopulation problem. As estimated, population will shift in future which decline from 9 in 2006 to 2.5 by year 2050 according to the Washington. For the healthcare, recently Chinas healthcare system has improvement slowed. For example, China spends 5.8 percent of its GDP as compare other developing country such as South Africa (8.7 percent), Brazil (7.9 percent) and India (6.1 percent). Yet, healthcare expenditures as a percentage of GDP have been increasing in China. By iimproving the healthcare system is important to raise living standards, therefore the lifestyle changes and the living standard increase in China. This is because that China toward the urbanization. Furthermore, Chinas economic growth rapidly recently years. Besides that, governments invest to the education industry boost up the individual became knowledgeable. This will increase the opportunity of working for an individual. On the other hand, many foreign direct investments in China provide more opportunity of occupation for Chinas citizen. From this, the high income nation will achieve in future, so that individual purchasing power will increase to enjoy a more quality lifestyle. Technology factor Technology changes rapid throughout the world. Innovation with technology compliance will increase the China own productivity and reduce the exports of growth. By implement advance technology, more information can be gain by the country and will discoveries more new advantages like manufacturing advances, new research, and transportation infrastructure can be more convenience by using high technology implement. Science aspect like energy fuels usages, bio-tech, genetics, agri-tech all can be benefit through this factor. Many country advocate save the world by recycling. By using advance technology, goods can be done by using those used product and process a new product to the society. At the same time, recycling can be done. Most of the company will choose China as the production plant, so that, advance technology will be imports in China and at the same time, new technology able help to save much cost. Environment factor There many external factor been catogories in enviromental factor such as change of weather, and climate changes, which might impact many industries such as tourism, farming, and insurance. Furthermore, increasing awareness of these potential impacts of climate changes are changing how a company operates. The enviromental factor are can not be amendment by China itself. It depend other external enviroment like the enviromental regulation swhich is the rules or regulation that set by other country like tariff and quota. However, there are some country will do protection onward their own product. The  Environmental Performance Index  (EPI) is a way in quantifying benchmarking the  environmental performance of a countrys policies.  According to 2010 environmental performance index, China score 49.8% of EPI and 58.7% of environmental health. Among the Asia country, China get the 18th places of its. One of the major reasons due to many industry factories builds at their effect the environment health. The air pollution of environmental health in China is at the 40.07% (Environmental Performance Index  ranking among Asia and pacific, 2010) Legal factor Legal factor include regulatory of the country. Company which analysis by this PESTEL analysis is to determine the strategy should be implementing on that. As china, employment rate fluctuant small. Employer will choose to have a factory at China that might due to low cost labor if compare with other country. Major Law in employment law is the labor law which is to protect labor benefits. According that, included all penalty, the standard working hours and the overtime minimum payment for ensure employee able get the benefits that should obtain. Furthermore, many companies decided invest their business in China and built up their industry and factory.Therefore the industry specific regulation to protect Chinas industry. Competitive regulation such as implement the taxes on foreign good to protect own good comparison. There are some functions and Powers of Organizations existence with Consumer Protection Responsibilities such as Consumers Association of China (CAC), State Administration for Industry and Commerce (SAIC) and State Bureau of Quality Technical Supervision (SBQTS).

Friday, September 20, 2019

Nestle Food Processing Company Marketing Essay

Nestle Food Processing Company Marketing Essay Nestlà © Pakistan Limited, the Groups principal activities are to manufacture process and sell food products and ancillary equipment. The food products include diary, confectionery and culinary products, coffee and beverage and drinking water. The major brands include MILKPAK UHT, NESTLE EVERYDAY, LACTOGEN and NESCAFE. It operates in Sheikhupura, Kabariwala, Islamabad and Karachi. The Milkpak Sheikhupura factory had commenced operations in 1981 as a producer of UHT milk. By 1988, it had expanded its operation and was also producing butter, cream, ghee. To target the large potential offered by the tea-creaming segment, Nestlà © everyday tea-creamer was launched in 1992, supported by integrated marketing, focused distribution with sampling drives and excellent consumer acceptance, the brand has shown strong growth and holds great promise for the future. Nestlà © Pakistan is proud of its commitment to excellence in product and safety and quality and providing value and services to its consumers. On the social front it is very responsible when it comes to environmentally sound business practices and corporate social responsibility. Nestlà © Pakistan operates in many ways but people products and brands are the main flag bearers of the companys image. Nestlà © Milkpak Ltd. is the market leader in food and beverage industry. They are producing high quality well known brands. The core raw material of Nestlà © Milkpak is milk. Over the last thirteen years the company prime concern has been to improve the quality and volume of milk for UHT processing and for other milk base products. So the company has twenty-five milk collection centres in Pakistan. Nestlà © Pakistans supply chain makes sure that Nestlà © products are available, no matter wherever in Pakistan. Nestlà © integrate processes from the farm to markets, and ensure products are delivered to consumers at the right time, the right cost and in the right quantities. At the Village Milk Collection Centre the farmers milk is poured into aluminium churns. The agent checks the milks freshness and purity, and enters the quantity into the farmers logbook. He takes it to one of Nestlà ©s 1308 Secondary Reception and Cooling Stations, about 2-4 kilometres away. Along with correct cooling, pasteurization is one of the most important processes in the treatment of milk. Temperature and pasteurization time are very important factors which must be specified precisely in relation to the quality of the milk and its shelf life requirements. The pasteurization temperature for homogenized, HTST pasteurized, regular-grade milk is usually 72-75  °C for 15-20 seconds. Nestlà © is the worlds largest food and beverage company in terms of sales. Due to strong brand name product will gain a wide consumer acceptance from all over the Pakistan. The biggest strength would be the strong brand name, the risk in investing would be reasonable be very low. Nestlà © will set a complete transparent manufacturing system for customer satisfaction in terms of hygiene. Nestlà © strengthen their product by broad distribution network by increasing the capacity for innovation which will lead to an improvement in sale growth. Nestlà © will be organising a team which will inspect and observe the accumulation (stock) on daily bases to prevent any damages occurring and also in order to keep the inventory fresh. Nestlà © will make sure that they are not having surprise shortage, weather it is winter or summer no matter what circumstances are. Further strength would be skilled labour, educated staff, large number of offerings and pre-purchase virtual display; arrangement of events, good background of the company, easy to approach outlets and physical evidence. The main weakness of Nestlà © product is the lack of an established good standing. The competitors have been around for decades and therefore have a loyal base. The second biggest weakness would be the lack of capital, establishing such an enormous and gigantic plant there will be a need of acquiring financial support in terms of loans from the bank. Spending millions in a strong brand is no guarantee to wealth. It may the safest way to get into the business, but it is not necessarily the cheapest. Further weakness would be small target market, lack of awareness among the target market and dependency on others like governments and sponsors for the arrangement of events. The biggest opportunity would be considered geographically. Pakistan is situated in an area where have summers most of the time. People love as well as enjoy eating ice-cream in the season. Due to strong brand name in the market, Nestlà © product has a great potential of earning profits. To make the product successful, the company will be utilizing the highest degree of technology in calculating customers satisfaction as well as their feedback. Gaining initial success the next step would be opening a parlour where people can enjoy all the flavour under one roof. Further opportunities would be increasing interest of people ad few and weak competitors. Threats Nestlà © is facing the threats by worldwide community due to its violation of international marketing standards. Many conferences and campaigns have been held against Nestlà © in this regard which can damage the name and trust of its customers. Another threat is due to the increasing popularity of its competitor OLPERS in local and international markets. Further threat would be the major player may enter target market, the legal and ethical issues, market segment growth could attract new entrants and economic slowdown can reduce demand. Stage 3: Strategy Formulation Milkpak will position Nestlà © product as a high quality product consumer focused. Messages like They knows your taste better than us, Nestle Milkpak now at your door step; Add additional flavours to your life will help to portray Nestlà © picture clearly and distinctly. Milkpak will position Nestlà © product against the competitors and gain competitive advantage through the efficient promotional methods, using innovations, and by reaching closer to the target market through the arrangement of events like Basant, Valentine day and etc. In short consumers will view Nestlà © as a product providing highly quality, in terms of taste, customer focused and, at the same time reasonably priced as compared to others. 3.0 Core Competency of Nestlà © To pose Nestlà © product against the competitors, the company will be using differentiation strategy which will not only differentiate their own from others but also give an edge over others. Nestlà © core products will be very beneficial especially in terms of quality, health, and hygiene and most important consumer satisfaction. Nestlà © augmented products will include consumer satisfaction, warranty to retailers in terms of expire, delivery and after sales services. The companies all over the world get some competitive edge based on some features which other companies dont have. For example, as the Dell has the competitive edge over other computer manufacturer companies, because they use built-to-order Strategy while no other company in computer industry use this strategy. Similarly in Pakistan nestle has their competitive edge based on the strategies like product differentiation and customer oriented. Nestlà © is using the product differentiation strategy by providing the superior quality products. Their main focus is to keep the customers loyal. They bought shelve space in different departmental stores to attract the customers. They tried to reach each group of people in which they have succeeded. Besides, customer satisfaction is the focal point for the company. They provide hygienic products to their customers. Products are also verified by health and safety measures and international quality standards.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

should the confederacy won the civil war? :: essays research papers fc

Should the Confederacy have won the civil war?   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Looking at the American Civil War ones must also look at the economics of the 19th century in the U. S. Hand in hand one must also look at the politics and battle plans of the war. The slave plantation owners’ class was a minority in the Southern population but it controlled southern politics and society. Slavery being the biggest investment of the South, and the fear of slave instability ensured the allegiance of southern non-slave-owners to the economic and social system of the South. As luck would have it, slavery helped America become noticed as a world power during the 19th century. Many other factors must be looked at when discussing the successes and failures in the Civil War. Decision made and actions that were taken all played a part in the final outcome of the war. The thought that the South could have positive outcomes from the war was doomed from the beginning.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Slaves produced many good and services that were provided to the benefit of most white Americans absolutely or not absolutely. (1) Slaves were not just used for agriculture. They also were used for forms of production and trade jobs. For parts of the 18th and most of the 19th century, slaves were the true work force of America. The existence of slavery was the reason that most white Americans had hobbies or did not worry about occupations concerned about farming or the need to earn an hourly wage. Because of this white Americans were able to get higher educations and (1) Schwartz, David G. â€Å"The South and Slavery† History 101. University of Nevada Las Vegas. March 30, 2004 skills to increase their generation income for themselves and their offspring. The development of a leisure class also developed the social upper classes of the Old South. (2) In other words, other than the obvious, slavery produced gargantuan benefits indirectly for white Americans. Production was not a true concern of many plantation owners; since it was being handled it would always be handled as long as there were slaves on the plantation production system. While the South became extremely wealthy by using slavery for agricultural labor, the North focused on trade, commerce, banking, shipping, and manufacturing. But the question can one survives without the other comes up? The North was able to attain such success in commerce because of the South’s cheap production of food and materials produced by slavery.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Internet Censorship :: essays research papers

Internet Censorship For centuries governments have tried to regular materials deemed inappropriate or offensive. The history of western censorship was said to have begun when Socrates was accused "firstly, of denying the gods recognized by the State and introducing new divinities, and secondly of corrupting the young." He was sentenced to death for these crimes. Many modern governments are attempting to control access to the Internet. They are passing regulations that restrict the freedom people once took for granted. The Internet is a world wide network that should not be regulated or censored by any on country. It is a complex and limitless network which allows boundless possibilities and would be effected negatively by the regulations and censorship that some countries are intent on establishing. Laws that are meant for other types of communication will not necessarily apply in this medium. There are no physical locations where communications take place, making it difficult to determine where violations of the law should be prosecuted. There is anonymity on the Internet and so ages and identities are not known this makes it hard to determine if illegal activities are taking place in regards to people under the legal age. As well, it is difficult to completely delete speech once it has been posted, Meaning that distributing materials that are obscene are banned becomes easy The American Library Association (ALA) has a definition that states censorship is â€Å"the change in the access status of material, made by a governing authority or its representatives. Such changes include: exclusion, restriction, remove, or age/grade level changes.† This definition, however, has a flaw in that it only recognizes one form of censorship-governmental censorship. Cyberspace, a common name for the Net, has been defined by one author as being "made up of millions of people who communicate with one another through computers. It is also "information stored on millions of computers worldwide, accessible to others through telephone lines and other communication channels "that" make up what is known as cyberspace." The same author went on to say " term itself is elusive, since it is not so much a physical entity as a description of an intangible." The complexity of the Internet is demonstrated through its many components. The most readily identifiable part is the World Wide Web (WWW). This consists of web pages that can be accessed through the use of a web browser. Web pages are created using a basic programming language. Another easily identified section of the Internet is e-mail. Once again it is a relatively user-friendly communication device. Some other less publicized sections of the Internet include: Internet Relay Chat (IRC), which allows real time chatting to

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

American Pit Bull Terriers

The history of modern American Pit Bull Terrier, often abbreviated as APBT, started in England and the early 19th century. The breed resulted from crosses of terriers with bully type dogs. In those times, the ancestors of modern American Pit Bull Terriers were used as working dogs to control unruly bulls for butchers and farmers. They were also used for the cruel sport of bull baiting. However, the historians point out the year 1835 as the turning point in the history of pit bulls, when the practice of bull baiting was replaced by the practice of another bloody sport of dog fighting.That’s why it won’t be a mistake to say that the breed has fighting origins. The first breed registry for the registration and acceptance of pit bulls was started in 1898 by Chauncy Bennet and called the UKC. He wanted to create an organization that would represent the breed as performance dogs and he added â€Å"American† and tried to eliminate â€Å"Pit† from the APBT’ s name but â€Å"Pit† was added back soon. The requirement for a dog to become a part of the UKC was the victory in three fights at minimum, but this requirement became history with the time.Second oldest organization dedicated to pit bulls, American Dog Breeders Association, was formed in 1909 by Guy McCord. The ultimate goal of the association was to probe the performance quality of a pit bull without actual dog fight. Around that time the AKC registered pit bulls under the name of the Staffordshire Terrier. This was changed to the American Staffordshire Terrier in the year 1972. Pit bulls and American Staffordshire Terriers displayed physically identity until 1936.It was the year when American Staffordshire Terriers were bred for conformation only and their breed requirements were moving to more and more stringent, while pit bulls were bred for both fighting and conformation shows. American Staffordshire Terriers became flashier with blockier heads, larger chests and a thi cker jaw, and pit bulls varied phenotypically. Modern pit bulls can be easily recognized by the following characteristic: they are â€Å"blocky and broad, the head's classic chiseled appearance, packed with bulging muscle, combines character with strength.† (O'Neil, 1995, p. 5) Breed standards say that an ideal dog should be medium-sized, solidly built, short-coated dog with smooth, well-defined musculature. Ears are small to medium in size, high set, and may be natural or cropped. The dog can be of all colours and colour patterns, except merde. The head of pit bull is the pivotal element of breed type, being large and broad to create the impression of great power, but never disproportionate to the size of the whole dog.The head should be shaped like a broad and blunt wedge when viewed from the front. The neck should be of moderate length and muscular. The shoulder blades should be muscular as well, and also long, wide, and well laid back. The chest should be deep, well fille d in, and moderately wide, but the chest can’t be wider than it is deep. The feet have to be round, proportionate to the size of the body, well arched, and tight.Faults of the dog include bulky or muscle-bound or fine-boned and rangy appearance, level bite, snipey muzzle, flews, weak lower jaw, short or thick or weak or ewe neck, dewlap, upright or loaded shoulders, elbows turned outward or tied-in, down at the pasterns, front legs bowed, wrists knuckled over, toeing in or out, narrow hindquarters, hindquarters shallow from pelvis to crotch, lack of muscle, straight or over angulated stifle joint, cow hocks, sickle hocks, bowed legs, splayed feet, long tail, curly, wavy, or sparse coat, legs not moving on the same plane, legs over reaching, legs crossing over in front or rear, rear legs moving too close or touching, rolling, pacing, paddling, sidewinding, hackney action, pounding. Serious faults are bulging eyes, both eyes not matched in color, blue eyes, undershot, or oversh ot bite, wry mouth, missing teeth, gay or kinked tail.Disqualification is bobbed tail, long coat, merle, albinism, unilateral or bilateral cryptorchid, viciousness or extreme shyness, unilateral or bilateral deafness. As for the temperament, pit bulls are bred to be exceptionally sturdy and extremely human friendly, athletic, courageous, and tenacious. Pi bulls are also â€Å"known for being highly adaptable. They can change owners and move to another home with ease, provided their new family gives them attention and love. Pit Bulls are excellent at discerning when to show affection and when to show aggression. † (O'Neil, 1995, p. 33) What is true, however, is that an owner should carefully socialize and obedience train the dog because pit bulls can occasionally exhibit some level of dog aggression, which is different from human aggression anyway.But in general, these dogs show strength, indomitable courage, and gentleness with loved ones. This is â€Å"a dog that combined t he gameness of the terrier with the strength and athleticism of the Bulldog. † (The Rare Breed Dog Association, 2004, para. 1) As for the breed specific legislation, it generally bans or restricts particular breeds or mixes. A dog of a banned breed can be confiscated by the authorities and killed. A dog of a restricted breed must be confined, muzzled, chained, or restricted in other ways and owners must provide proof of liability insurance that covers dog bites. In some jurisdictions, dogs of restricted breeds and mixes must be identified by microchip or tattoo and have mug shots on file with police.Pit bulls are banned in Lynnville, Tennessee; Chamberlain, South Dakota; Pawtucket, Rhode Island; Minot, North Dakota; Salisbury and Carl Junction, Missouri; Inman, Kansas; Lockridge, Iowa; Stone Park and Buffalo Grove (restricted), Illinois; North Little Rock, Arkansas. Ohio state declared pit bulls as dangerous and vicious dogs. Many people believe that the application of breed s pecific legislation is unfair, because it often rests on myths and misconceptions. Breed specific legislation is a regulation of the right to own a dog based solely on the breed of dog, not one’s responsibility as an owner. Pit bulls are largely misunderstood and misrepresented by the public today, and there is a clear and consistent need to debunk some myths and falsehoods about the breed.One of the most widespread myths about pit bull terriers is that they are inherently aggressive. However, the facts say the opposite. While pit bulls were bred to be courageous and utterly devoid of pain sensations, they were never bred to be aggressive. Pit bulls were not only fighting breed, but family pets as well, therefore no aggression towards humans has ever been tolerated. Moreover, it would be simply impossible to control an aggressive dog before or after a fight. Pit bulls that showed human aggression were typically shoot, that’s why only human friendly lines were desired a nd perpetuated. Indeed, â€Å"[a] Pit Bull with the correct temperament will not threaten to attack a human without a very good reason†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (O'Neil, 1995, p. 32)The facts clearly show that pit bulls â€Å"are not the stereotypical devil dog put forth in media myths. They are companion animals who have enhanced the lives of many through their devoted people-loving natures, positively channeled physical prowess, bravery, and intelligence. Pit Bulls have served key roles in search-and-rescue efforts, excel in agility training, and work nationwide as therapy and service dogs. † (PAW, n/d. , â€Å"The Truth About Pit Bulls†, para. 1) Another popular myth about pit bulls is that they have a locking jaw and 1600 P. S. I. in jaw pressure. But these dogs don’t â€Å"have a triple-hinged jaw capable of extraordinary feats of strength.As any owner of a ball-crazy Golden retriever will tell you, the clamp of the jaw is as much a function of psychology as physiolo gy, and any dog can clamp down beyond the capability of a human to pry open. † (Keith, 2005, para. 10) Still, there are some important facts an owner should know about his or her dog. Training is very important for pit bulls. â€Å"Training is the jewel in the crown-the most important aspect of doggy husbandry. † (O'Neil, 1995, p. 98) American Canine Temperament Testing Association organized special tests for dogs’ temperament, and 95% of the American Pit Bull Terriers passed, compared to a 77% passing rate for all breeds in general.Moreover, APBTs had a passing rate that was the fourth highest of all 122 breeds tested. (PAW, n/d. , â€Å"Myth-Busters†, para. 5) But there are several things each owner should consider about his or her pet. â€Å"Pit Bulls are strong and energetic, so we recommend that owners take them to obedience classes as soon as they are up to date on shots. Pit Bulls suffer from prejudice and misunderstanding, so ownership requires a willingness to consider your neighbors' concerns and educate them. † (PAW, n/d. , â€Å"Being Aware and Prepared†, para. 1-2) Life with a well-trained pit bull is a sheer pleasure. These dogs â€Å"are wonderful, loyal, intelligent companions and are truly people-dogs; they want and need companionship of their owners.One of their most prominent breed traits is reliability with and friendliness to people, so some people call them ‘pet bulls. ’ Pit Bulls are extremely affectionate and love to cuddle. Pit Bulls also make great athletic partners and often excel in obedience work. † (PAW, n/d. , para. 1) The dog â€Å"is usually very friendly, but has an uncanny ability to know when it needs to protect and when everything is okay [but] can be willful and needs a firm hand. † (DogBreedInfo. com, n/d. , â€Å"Temperament†) So pit bull owners experience so much joy in being with their dogs. However, these dogs are suitable for people possessing certain traits of character.â€Å"If dogs could choose their owners instead of the other way around, American Pit Bull Terriers would probably look for owners who are blessed with high spirits and the joy of living. † (O'Neil, 1995, p. 37) These dogs make excellent family companions and have always been noted for their devoted love of children. Still, pit bulls are not recommended for those who don’t have enough (or at least some) experience with dogs; wants a dog as a macho status symbol; tends to be irresponsible, lax or neglectful; is not very familiar with the breed; expects to let their dog run around off-leash in public places. (Kovary, 1999) Dogs do well in urban settings but should have enough exercise and other positive outlets for their energy and vitality.They are generally good with children, but a senior dog is recommended for the households with small kids. Pit bulls are loving and very loyal companions for owners, especially if the owners establish thei r leadership in a humane and consistent way. Pit bulls should always respect and obey the owner. Therefore, we see that American Pit Bull Terrier is a dog with its peculiar history and characteristics, surrounded by many myths and ambiguities. References O'Neil, J. The American Pit Bull Terrier: An Owner's Guideto a Happy Healthy Pet. New York: Howell Book House, 2nd ed. , 1995. The Rare Breed Dog Association in the United States of America. â€Å"American Pit Bull Terrier: Official U. K. C.Breed Standard. † 21 October 2004. 17 October 2005. PAW. â€Å"Pet Bull Corner. † N/d. 17 October 2005. Keith, C. â€Å"Triple-Hinged Jaws of Doom†¦ And Other Myths About the Pit Bull. † 2005. 17 October 2005. DogBreedInfo. com. â€Å"American Pit Bull Terrier. † N/d. 17 October 2005. Kovary, R. â€Å"The St. Francis Terrier — Rediscovering The American Pit Bull Terrier. † American Dog Trainers Network. 1999. 17 October 2005.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Learning Styles and the Most Preferred Teaching Methodology Among Sophomore Nursing Students

Learning Styles and the Most Preferred Teaching Methodology among Sophomore Nursing Students An Undergraduate Thesis Presented To the Faculty of the Institute of Nursing Far Eastern University In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Nursing. Submitted By: Fernandez, Marjorie S. Flaga, Arlene M. Flores, Con Adrianne E. Flores, Jethro S. Flores, Kim Sheri L. Flores, Nonnette Adrian L. Floro, Giselle Ann DR. Foronda, Djenina R. Francia, Lovie Jay A. Frany, Lizairie Q. Fulgentes, Ezra M. BSN 114 / Group 56 Submitted to: Mr. Renante Dante Tan RN, MAN September 2010 APPROVAL SHEET The Thesis proposal entitled: Learning Styles and the Most Preferred Teaching Methodologies among Sophomore Nursing Students Prepared and submitted by: Fernandez, Marjorie S. , Flaga, Arlene M. , Flores, Con Adrianne E. , Flores, Jethro S. , Flores, Kim Sheri L. , Flores, Nonnette Adrian L. , Floro, Giselle Ann DR. , Foronda, Djenina R. , Francia, Lovie Jay A. , Frany, Lizairie Q. , Fulgentes, Ezra M. In Partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Bachelor OF Science in Nursing, this research proposal has been examined and recommended for acceptance and approval for oral examination. Renante Dante G. Tan Research Adviser Approved by the committee in Oral Examination with a grade of Ma. Belinda Buenafe RN, Ph. D. Josefina Florendo RN, MAN Associate Dean Institute of Nursing Esther Salvador RN, MAN Accepted and approved for partial fulfillment of requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Nursing. Glenda S. Arquiza RN, Ph. D. Dean Institute of Nursing ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The researchers of group 56 of Far Eastern University, BSN 114 Batch 2011 would like to extend our deep appreciation and sincerest gratitude to the outstanding people who made the study possible. First and foremost we thank our ever loving God who was our strength during our weakness and our guide when we’re out of sight. To our cooperative respondents and to their respective clinical instructors, we are very grateful for their acceptance to make our research possible. To our parents, that despite our busy schedule at school, we thank them for their immeasurable love, deep understanding and never ending support. We would also like to thank our fellow group mates and friends for understanding and exerting efforts that despite the pressure and conflicts, we remained intact and united in fulfilling this study. We also like to thank Mr. Jay-el Viteno, for consulting us in our statistics that despite his busy schedule was able to make time and guide us in making and understanding our research statistics. To our research adviser, Mr. Renante Dante G. Tan RN, MAN, for sharing with us his precious time and his guidance in helping us to make this research work possible. We would also like to thank him for all the encouragement and for his immeasurable faith and support in this work. To our respective panelists, Josefina Florendo RN,MAN, Esther Salvador RN, MAN and Dr. Ma. Belinda Buenafe of the Institute of Nursing, for letting us spread our wings and believing in us more than we do. With this, we would like to dedicate our finished manuscript to all the people who became part of our journey. ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the learning styles of the sophomore nursing students in Far Eastern University and their most preferred teaching methodology in terms of didactics and in skills. Methods: This study was conducted at Far Eastern University during the period from Noember 2009 to September 2010. The total population of the sophomores were 630, through Sloven’s formula, we were able to come up with 245 students as the sample. The instrument used by the researchers has two parts. The first part was the Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory which was used to determine the learning style of the respondents while the second part which was a self-made instrument validated by three experts was used to determine their most preferred teaching methodology. Results: Majority of the respondents belong to Divergers which has a frequency of 81 out of the 245 respondents, 58 were accomodators, 57 were assimilators and 49 were convergers. Based on the findings, there was a significant difference between the learning styles of the sophomore nursing students. The researchers also came up with the result that all of the four learning styles have a common teaching methodology which was demonstration. In terms of didactics, accomodators and convergers preferred pure lecture/discussion without power point with a percentage of 27. 6 and 32. 7, respectively. Divergers and assimilators preferred pure lecture/discussion with the use of power point with a percentage of 23. 7 and 17. 2, respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that there was a significant relationship between the learning styles of the sophomore nursing students and their most preferred teaching methodology TABLE OF CONTENTS Title i Approval Sheet ii Acknowledgement iii Abstract iv Table of Contents vi List of Tables viii List of Figures ix Chapter IIntroduction Background of the Study 1 Statement of the Problem 2 Significance of the Study 3 Scope and Limitation 5 Chapter IITheoretical Framework Review of Related Literature 6 Research Paradigm 27 Research Hypothesis 28 The Main Variable of the Study 28 Definition of Terms 29 Chapter IIIResearch Methodology Research Design 33Population and Sample 33 Research Locale 34 Research Instruments 35 Validation of the Instruments 36 Data Collection Procedure 36 Statistical Treatment of Data 37 Chapter IVResults and Discussion 40 Chapter VSummary of Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations Summary of Findings 57 Conclusions 58 Recommendations 58 Bibliography 59 Books Journals Website Appendices A. Letter to the Dean 60 B. Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory 61 C. Learning Style Grid 63 D. Population of the Sophomore Nursing students included in the study per section. 64 E. Learning Styles of Sophomore Nursing Students 65 F. Learning Styles of Sophomore Nursing Students Of Sophomore Nursing Students per section in terms of didactics 66 G. Learning Styles and the Preferred Teaching Methodology Of SophomoreNursing Students per section in terms of skills 72 H. Curriculum Vitae 78 List of Tables 1. Frequency Distribution & Percentage of the 6 sections included in the study 34 2. Frequency & Percentage distribution of the 245 respondents as to their different learning styles 41 3. Frequency and Percentage Distribution of preferred teaching methodology of Sophomore Nursing Students as per learning style in terms of Didactics 43 4. Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Preferred Teaching Methodologies of Sophomore Nursing Students as per Learning Style in terms of Skills 46 5. Chi- Square Goodness of fit for the difference of the different learning styles 49 6. Chi Square Test of Independence for the significant relationship of Learning Styles of sophomore nursing students and their most preferred teaching methodologies in terms of didactics50 7. Chi Square Test of Independence for the significant relationship of Learning Styles of sophomore nursing students and their most preferred teaching methodologyin terms of skills52 List of Figures 1. Research Paradigm27 2. Learning Style Grid 63 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Background of the Study Students have different approach in learning and these what makes them unique. Thus, understanding on how they learn and helping them to learn is vital in any educational program. This can be especially important for students since they may have different ways on how to learn. Some students prefer to learn by group work while some would prefer learning alone, some also learn while listening to music while some students learn effectively by studying silently. Furthermore, some students learn by engaging into activities yet some learn by observation only. These different learning techniques affect the students especially their coping mechanisms in terms of learning. In high school, teachers tend to spoon-feed their students while in college, professors are different, for the reason that they seldom discuss to the students the entire topic or lesson. Instead, they only discuss the important ideas and would encourage the students to read more and study harder. On the other hand, there are so many teaching methodologies that can be used to enhance effectively a student’s learning capabilities. Some focuses on learning skills while others are more on enhancing knowledge. In Far Eastern University, particularly in the Institute of Nursing, a particular subject is usually divided into different concepts. Each concept is taught by specific professor who has mastery over the concept. These professors use different teaching methodology in educating the students. Some sticks to only one methodology, while others use different teaching methodologies. Some of the most commonly used teaching methodologies are: Lecture w/ powerpoint and role playing in didactics and demonstration in skills. In the study conducted by Hauer, Straub and Wolf (2005), nursing students were identified as having a learning style preference between that of a diverger and an assimilator. According to the study conducted by Elliot (2003) about the preferred teaching methodologies of nursing students, most students preferred case studies and group discussion/activities. The question now rises, with the advent of technological advancement such as CCTV (Closed-Circuit Television) and virtual laboratory, can case study and group discussion still be the most preferred teaching methodology among nursing students? Statement of the problem This study aimed to determine the relationship among learning styles of sophomore nursing students of Far Eastern University and their most preferred teaching methodology. Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions: 1. What is the learning style of Sophomore nursing students? a. Convergers b. Divergers c. Assimilators d. Accommodators 2. What is the most preferred teaching methodology of sophomore nursing students as to their learning styles in terms of: a. Didactics b. Skills 3. Is there a significant difference among the different learning styles of sophomore nursing students? 4. Is there a significant relationship in the learning styles of sophomore nursing students when grouped according to their most preferred teaching methodology in terms of: I. Didactics II. Skills Significance of the study The different learning styles of every student in the present time have a great impact on their academic performance. Everyone use different learning style to improve their own knowledge, some may be good in studying while listening to music, some students like to study alone in the four corners of their room, and some students learn easily if they are within a group study session. The researchers chose this topic because they want to challenge themselves to be more aware on how the students learn and grow in their own way and to know how the students learn and acquire knowledge. Nursing Practice The study would be helpful in guiding students with identifying their learning style as early as their second year in the institute of nursing. Therefore, having a good learning style that would match their most preferred teaching methodology could help them learn more effectively thus enhancing their knowledge. Having more knowledge could enable the students to be more proficient in the nursing practice. Nursing Administration The study provided awareness about the learning styles and the preferred teaching methodologies of sophomore nursing students, thus giving insights about the needs of the students as they learn. This study might also provide ideas on how to improve the education system for the benefit of the students. Nursing Education The result of this study should give nursing educators ideas on what specific teaching methodology to be used based on the students’ learning style. Furthermore, the nursing educator would have an insight as to what teaching methodology is best suited for the student providing a more student-centered teaching method that would aid the student to learn more effectively. Nursing Research The study of different learning styles of the students might contribute to nursing research through developing trustworthy evidence about issues of importance to the nursing profession, including nursing practice, education, administration and informatics. It made the study more significant in present time because through researching, the researchers might prove that the learning style/strategies might have advantage and disadvantage in studying. The importance of research in nursing is that because of broad support for evidenced base nursing practice, research has assumed heightened importance for nurses. Research finding from rigorous studies provide especially strong evidence for informing nurse’s decisions and actions. Nurses are accepting the need to the base specific nursing actions are clinically appropriate, cost effective, and result positive outcomes for clients. Scope and limitation The study focused on determining the relationship between the different learning styles and the most preferred teaching methodology of sophomore nursing students of the Far Eastern University during the first semester of school year 2010. The researcher used a descriptive correlational design. 245 sophomore nursing students were selected through purposive sampling technique. The study was conducted at Far Eastern University on July 17, 2010. The study did not include factors that may affect the result of the study such age and gender of the respondents as well as whether they really wanted to be in the nursing profession. Furthermore, the respondent’s level of stress and grades were also not included in the study. CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Learning According to Eric Kandel (2000) â€Å"Learning is the process by which we acquire knowledge about the world. † Learning is the process in which a person consciously takes their self farther away from ignorance. Ignorance is the lack of knowledge, the inability to understand something without guidance from an outside force. Ignorance can also be the willful act of not learning. ( Lindsea 2008 ) Learning Styles The literature basically indicates that there is wide acceptance of the concept of learning styles; however, there is disagreement on how to best measure learning styles (Coffield, et. al. , 2004). While the learning profession has long recognized the need for innovative instructional activities that relate to the diverse learning styles of learners, there is some question as to just how meaningful they are to the learning environment. That is, most researchers agree that people do have various learning styles and preferences, however, research tends to agree that it is relative unimportant as it is far more important to match the presentation with the nature of the subject, such as providing correct learning methods, strategies, and context; than matching individual preferences (Coffield, 2004). Perhaps David Merrill (2000) has the best philosophy for using learning styles — instructional strategies should first be determined on the basis of the type of content to be taught or the goals of the instruction (the content-by-strategy interactions) and secondarily, learner styles and preferences are then used to adjust or fine-tune these fundamental learning strategies. Finally, content-by-strategy interactions take precedence over learning-style-by-strategy interactions regardless of the instructional style or philosophy of the instructional situation. According to Rayner (2001) and Coffield (2001), the idea of a personal style in learning has clearly spread across the globe during the last decade to occupy a prominent place in professional discussion about learning and teaching. This means that the learning style of an individual matters in learning and also it affects teaching. Recent work by Burnett (2005) Cheminais (2002) and Reid (2005) identify that the different styles in learning serve as an important component in inclusive learning and teaching in the classroom. Indeed, Cheminais (2002) suggested that to be an effective and successful teacher, they should: (a) show respect for pupils’ individual learning styles and differences, (b) be responsive to pupils’ different learning styles, (c)use different levels of tasks and activities. Smith (2001) has stated that there are two methods related to grasping experience and these two are the Concrete Experience (CE) and Abstract Conceptualization (AC). In addition, he also suggested two methods in transforming experience and these are Reflective Observation (RO) and Active Experimentation (AE). These four modes are all engaged in the ideal learning process and must be incorporated together to have an effective learning based on Kolb’s Learning Theory. Individuals are likely to develop or use one-grasping experience approach and one experience-transforming approach. The combination of these two preferred approaches is the individual’s learning style (Smith, 2001). These learning styles are the following: converger, diverger, assimilator, and accommodator. Converger Convergers excel in making practical applications of ideas and in using deductive reasoning to solve problems. They use Active experimentation and abstract conceptualization as their approaches in transforming experience and grasping experience, respectively (Smith, 2001). They learn from thinking (Chiya, 2003). Diverger Divergers are characterized by concrete experience (feeling) and reflective observation (watching). They use imagination and see things in different points of view (Smith, 2001). They are learning from feeling (Chiya, 2003). Assimilator If convergers use deductive reasoning, assimilators on the other hand use inductive reasoning in creating theoretical models. They utilized abstract conceptualization and reflective observation as their preferred approaches (Smith, 2001). They learn from watching and listening (Chiya, 2003) Accommodator Accommodators are good in actively engaging with the world and actually doing things rather than merely reading about and studying them. They are characterized by concrete experience (feeling) and active experimentation (doing) (Smith, 2001). They learn from doing (Chiya, 2003). â€Å"The more learning styles learners use as their major learning styles, the more flexible and successful the learners are. If students use limited learning styles as their preference, it is more challenging for them to adjust to teachers’ teaching styles† (Chiya, 2003). An interpretation was amended & revised by Alan Chapman (March 2006), based on Kolb’s Learning Styles which explains that different people naturally prefer a certain single different learning style. Various factors influence a person's preferred style: notably in his experiential learning theory model (ELT) Kolb defined three stages of a person's development, and suggests that the propensity to reconcile and successfully integrate the four different learning styles improves as people mature through their development stages. The development stages that Kolb identified are: (a) Acquisition – birth to adolescence – development of basic abilities and ‘cognitive structures', (b) Specialization – schooling, early work and personal experiences of adulthood – the development of a particular ‘specialized learning style' shaped by ‘social, educational, and organizational socialization', (c) Integration – mid-career through to later life – expression of non-dominant learning style in work and personal life. Whatever influences the choice of style, the learning style preference itself is actually the product of two pairs of variables, or two separate ‘choices' that peole make, which Kolb presented as lines of axis, each with ‘conflicting' modes at either end: Concrete Experience – CE (feeling) —–V—–Abstract Conceptualization – AC (thinking) Active Experimentation – AE (doing) —–V—– Reflective Observation – RO (watching) Felder & Spurlin (2005) try to remedy the potential misuse of learning styles by pointing out that: (a) Learning style dimensions are scales, mild, moderate or extreme tendencies can be exhibited, (b) Learning style profiles are indicative of tendencies and individuals at one time or another will exhibit tendencies of the opposing characteristic, (c) Learning style preferences do not indicate a learner's strengths and weaknesses, only the preferred activity, (d) Learning style preferences may be subject to a learner's educational experience and ‘comfort'. Teaching Methodology Motivating students is a simple matter of rewards, gimmicks, and games. Students respond to teachers who can inspire while they teach. Creativity is essential. (Craft, 2010) According to Chiya (2003), students’ learning can be sometimes hindered by the gap between the students’ learning styles and the teachers’ teaching styles, and also the lack of instruction on learning strategies. Bridging this gap can only be achieved when the professors are aware of their students’ needs, capacities, potentials and most importantly, their learning styles (Rao, 2002). Discussion Lecture based format is the traditional passive way of learning. It involves situations where material is delivered to students. Recent studies show the effectiveness of active learning methods. A comparison of lecture combined with discussion versus active, cooperative learning methods by Morgan, Whorton, & Gunsalus (2000) demonstrated that the use of the lecture combined with discussion resulted in superior retention of material among students. The findings of a study by de Caprariis, Barman, & Magee (2001) suggest that lecture leads to the ability to recall facts, but discussion produces higher level comprehension. Further, research on group-oriented discussion methods has shown that team learning and student-led discussions not only produce favorable student performance outcomes, but also foster greater participation, self confidence and leadership ability (Perkins & Saris, 2001; Yoder & Hochevar, 2005). In considering an adapted practice model, substantial research highlights the usefulness of work-based mentorship and supervision as part of effective training strategies. Studies claim the one-to-one supervisory relationship was the most important element in clinical instruction (Saarikoski and Leino-Kilpi, 2002). Mentorship also facilitates learning opportunities, and supervises and assesses staff in the practice setting. Terminology frequently used to describe a mentor includes teacher, supporter, coach, facilitator, assessor, role model and supervisor (Hughes, 2004; Chow and Suen, 2001). This is supported by models advocating self-directed, evidence-based and problem-based learning. Demonstration According to Rosen, Salas, and Upshaw (2007, p. 6) demonstrations are often conceived of simply as an example of task performance; however, demonstrations are rightfully thought of as experiences where learners are prompted to actively process the informational content of the example and to systematically and reliably acquire targeted KSA’s and transfer them to the work environment. They define demonstration as a strategically crafted, dynamic example of partial or whole task performance or of characteristics of the task environment intended to increase the learner’s performance by illustrating (with modeling, simulation, or any visualization approach) the enactment of knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSA’s) targeted for skill acquisition. † Demonstrations vary in terms of informational and physical characteristics (e. g. , content, form of presentation). Demonstrations also vary in terms of the activities that the learner engages in prior to, during and after observing the example of task performance. According to Fisher & Frey (2008), students need to be aware of the thinking process of the teacher. Demonstration uses a combination of verbal and visual elements to accomplish a task, skill, or strategy (Fisher & Frey, 2008). The demonstration includes the sequence of steps and the decisions that accompany each step so the next step makes sense. Errors to avoid are also noted to accomplish the task, skill or strategy (Fisher & Frey, 2008). After demonstrating the skill or strategy students can be led to know how and when to use their new skills. They can self-assess and evaluate the approaches they use to connect the learning to the next new skill that they learn. They can  begin to travel on the road to self-directed learning. Teachers who have a demonstrator or personal model teaching style tend to run teacher-centred classes with an emphasis on demonstration and modeling(School of Educators, 2010). This will help the students develops and apply skills and knowledge. According to the School of Educators (2010), a teacher with this type of teaching style might comment: â€Å"I show my students how to properly do a task or work through a problem and then I'll help them master the task or problem solution. It's important that my students can independently solve similar problems by using and adapting demonstrated methods. † This teaching style may help an instructor or a teacher to encourage student participation and adapting their presentation to include various learning styles. Students are expected to take some responsibility for learning what they need to know and for asking for help when they don't understand something. As lectures, they should aim for meaningful learning through active processes, not passive transmission of facts (Michael, 2001). Students have different preferred learning styles, experiences, background knowledge, and interests, therefore, according to Michael (2001) that we must use a variety of teaching strategies to maximize student learning. One such teaching strategy involves the use of interactive classroom demonstration. Student work cooperatively to gain meaningful learning of sometimes difficult neural concepts and at the time have fun with the subject (Michael, J. , 2001). Online Terrell ; Dringus (2000) investigated the effect of learning style on student success in an online learning environment and concluded that institutions offering online education programs should give consideration to the different learning styles of their students. According to Farmer (2006) online learning systems have forced teachers and learners to focus on discussion boards and shared communication spaces rather than on the individuals who are taking part in them. Online discussion is ‘group-centred’. It counters the greatest use of LMS (learning management systems) which is to post content online. It is the primary mode of online interaction for constructivist learning: learning based on interpretation and construction of the world rather than reflecting an external reality (Malinowski et al 2006). ‘Reflection and even dialogue are greatly limited in most campus based classrooms, online learning may in fact have an advantage in supporting collaboration and creating a sense of community. An online learning environment reflects a â€Å"group- centered† interaction pattern versus an â€Å"authority-centered pattern† of a face-to-face environment. ’ (Garrison 2006). Pelz (2004) stated that learning does not occur spontaneously among a group of students, whether the setting is face to face or online. Online discussion requires structure just as in a face-to-face setting. In essence, online discussions provide a vehicle where knowledge is facilitated by participants interacting cooperatively with others (critical thinking), to accomplish shared learning goals (social interdependence) particularly when the learning task focuses upon the solution of real-life problems (constructivist learning) (Williams ; Wache 2005). E-learning will take the form of complete courses, access to content for â€Å"just-in-time† learning, access to components, a la carte courses and services, and the separation of â€Å"courses† to acquire and test knowledge vs. content as an immediate, applicable resource to resolve an immediate, perhaps, one time only problem. Learning is and will continue to be a lifelong process, that could be accessed anywhere at anytime to meet a specific need or want. Hall added that more links to real-time data and research would become readily available. Given the progression of the definitions, then, web-based training, online learning, e-learning, distributed learning, internet-based learning and net-based learning all speak of each other (Hall ; Snider, 2000; Urdan ; Weggen, 2000). Reverting to Halls (2000) contention of e-learning in all-inclusive form, distance learning as planned interactive courses, as the acquisition of knowledge and skills at a distance through various technological mediums would seem to be one of e-learning possible disguises. Interestingly, Urdan ; Weggen (2000) saw e-learning as a subset of distance learning, online learning a subset of e-learning and computer-based learning as a subset of online learning. Given the review of definitions on all these terms ‘subset’ does not appear to be the most likely word to describe the relationship among these words and their forms. The definitions show a great depth of interdependence among themselves. While one person may narrowly define a term, another person could give it the all encompassing power. This communicates that e-learning, if given the all encompassing form, can be the larger circle of which all other terms would be overlapping at different times and extents given their user’s intention. Another rationale for this choice is that â€Å"just-in-time† learning is a major advantage of e-learning but not of distance learning. Distance learning purports planned courses, or planned experiences. E-learning does not only value planned learning but also recognizes the value of the unplanned and the self-directedness of the learner to maximize incidental learning to improve performance. Similar also to e-learning and its related terms is technology-based learning (Urdan ; Weggen 2000). Urdan ; Weggen shared that e-learning covers a wide set of applications and processes, including computer-based learning, web-based learning, virtual classrooms, and digital collaborations. For the purpose of their report, they further customized their definition to the delivery of content via all electronic media, including the Internet, intranets, extranets, satellite broadcast, audio/video tape, interactive TV, and CD-ROM. They warned, however, that e-learning is defined more narrowly than distance learning, which would include text-based learning and courses conducted via written correspondence. Like Hall ; Snider 2000), Urdan ; Weggen (2000) have set apart distance learning and e-learning in their glossaries, making, however, e-learning inclusive and synonymous to all computer-related applications, tools and processes that have been strategically aligned to value-added learning and teaching processes. E-learning is the acquisition and use of knowledge distributed and facilitated primarily by electronic means. This form of learning currently depends on networks and computers but will likely evolve into systems consisting of a variety of channels (e. g. , wireless, satellite), and technologies (e. g. , cellular phones, PDA’s) as they are developed and adopted. E-learning can take the form of courses as well as modules and smaller learning objects. E-learning may incorporate synchronous or asynchronous access and may be distributed geographically with varied limits of time. Group work (Brainstorming) According to the study of White et al (2005), group work was generally a positive experience for pharmacology and IT students. However, there were also 25% of the 126 respondents who responded to the open-ended questions with negative comments. These comments were the need for objective individual marks, avenues to decrease loafers, bias among friends in peer evaluations and concerns with confidentiality and anonymity with peer evaluation. The researchers here concluded that attitudes towards group work are probably negatively affected by group assessment and may be improved to some extent by using peer evaluation. Research proves that group work experience was generally positive for students across the different disciplines. They saw group work as a tool to develop life-long and generic skills in influencing and persuading, negotiating and team-building (Maiden, 2004). According to him, this method – group work promotes the development of the said skills. A research study of Reid et al (2005) showed that some students see group work as an undertaking that must be completed well. On the other hand, others see it as a tool for them that would help them advance their individual and collective knowledge. In additional, the approach that students take to their learning depends on the particular conceptions of the task at hand. According to Petrowski et al (2000), group work and creativity has begun in the 1950s and that until now, it is still debatable whether creativity is within a person, as a product or a process. Oral Recitation(Question and answer) | Questioning students not only allows the teacher to evaluate the level of understanding but also provides for feedback, fine tuning the levels of teaching, dealing with misconceptions early, as well as improving the educational material presented. Perhaps one of the most key thoughts beyond all the information above is very simple. Teaching is learning. To teach is to learn. Good teachers learn and adapt to their students, and expand or refine their teaching material as they learn about themselves as well. According to Jennifer Evans (2010), Oral recitation is the practice of having an entire class â€Å"recite important facts, identifications, definitions, and procedures within the instruction and later when they need to be revisited†. This method proves quite beneficial to students when acted out frequently in the classroom, though the time for each session should be kept rather short, not exceeding two and one-half minutes. Hearing it said aloud by their own mouths results in a higher level of confidence in the subject matter, while also ensuring that they fully understand a topic that requires  critical thinking. By engaging them in the learning process rather than just instructing, students will become far more interested in their education until they’re just itching for more knowledge. Also, the level of seriousness is kept to the maximum when students come to realize that this specific topic is vital enough for the entire class to participate in at once, further ensuring remembrance. This process of learning should not be set aside for the classroom alone, however; students of all ages, from elementary school to college, can use this tool to retain any form of information ranging in levels of difficulty. It’s advisable for students currently in their higher learning stages to just sit in a quiet room by themselves and recite whatever facts or definitions they may need aloud. First, they can start by reading straight out of their notes or textbook, allowing themselves to both see the words on the page while reading them out loud. Then, they can progress to the true test by verbally reciting without their paper. This should be repeated a number of times before the day of the test, allowing themselves weeks of prep time; however, once again it is imperative to not put too much strain on the subject. The more difficult the subject is, the more important it is for  a student to be able to recall it at the tip of a hat. Treating information in a more sophisticated way allows this to happen, as the mind will, too, treat the information will such  a high level of care. This method also incorporates the social time all young people need to truly becoming comfortable in their environment. Bitchener ; Watanabe (2008), the part of the exchange does not reflect what is characteristic of realistic communication (you do not usually correct what other people say when they are talking), the fact that student turned her attention to form in this precise moment has important implications for language learning, for it is an act of noticing a language item and how it should work. It is this aspect that helps us decide what to say (meaning) and how to say it, (form) depending on the situation in which we find ourselves and depending on what was said before by us and the other participants of the conversation. Although this process is mostly and best carried out unconsciously, â€Å"meaningful use of language will necessarily imply the establishment of relevant form-meaning mappings† (van den Branden, 2006). Powerpoint PowerPoint is best used when students are expected to retain complex graphics, animation, and figures. For alphanumeric information (e. g. text and numbers) Powerpoint as well as traditional presentations can be used. According to Shock (2008), if students are expected to retain information and/or concepts that are best conveyed through dialog or verbal explanation,  traditional presentations  appear to be best. This type of information should not be shared verbally in the presence of PowerPoint, because people tend to focus on that what is presented on the slides as opposed to what is verbalized. If students are expected to retain simple graphs and alphanumeric information that is verbalized and displayed visually, either presentation style is acceptable. Educational technologies are most effective when used properly. According to Savoy et al (2009), the ‘‘intelligent use† of educational technologies can be defined with three components (1) How people learn (cognitive component)? 2) How can the learning experience be facilitated (instruction component)? (3) How can technology be used to improve instruction and learning (technology component)? Over the years there has been re search to support the three components as individual entities and collectively as the cognitive theory of multimedia learning. The third component has received much attention as researchers try to evaluate the effectiveness of new educational technologies, particularly PowerPoint. Case Presentation It is now documented that students can learn more effectively when actively involved in the learning process (Bonwell and Eison, 1991; Sivan et al, 2001). The case study approach is one way in which such active learning strategies can be implemented in our institutions. There are a number of definitions for the term case study. For example, Fry et al (1999) describe case studies as complex examples which give an insight into the context of a problem as well as illustrating the main point. Davis and Wilcock defined case studies as student centred activities based on topics that demonstrate theoretical concepts in an applied setting. This definition of a case study covers the variety of different teaching structures used, ranging from short individual case studies to longer group-based activities. According to Onishi (2008) in most clinical teaching settings, case presentation is the most frequently used teaching and learning activity. From an educational viewpoint, the two important roles of case presentations are the presenter's reflective opportunity and the clinician educator's clues to diagnose the presenter. When a presenter prepares for a case presentation, he/she has to organize all the information collected from a patient. The presenter sometimes does not recall what to ask or to examine with relation to pertinent differential diagnoses while seeing a patient, and afterward he/she might note that more information should have been collected. He/she is able to note the processes by reflection-on-action and improve the processes the next time. Such a reflective process is the most important role of case conference for a presenter. According to Shochet, Cayea, Levine and Wright (2007), case presentation is a time-honored tradition in clinical medicine. Expert analysis of patient cases has been the stimulus for significant discovery and advances in clinical medicine. All clinical educators encounter â€Å"memorable cases† in their teaching roles. The case presentation can also be used by educators as a means to more deeply appreciate unique or challenging learner experiences, and by doing so, enhance teaching expertise. Dissemination of these cases may lead to discoveries and advances in the practice of medical education. Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) The advantages of video conferencing by using closed circuit television in educational institutions are well documented. Scholarly literature has indicated that videoconferencing technology reduces time and costs between remote locations, fill gaps in teaching services, increases training productivity, enables meetings that would not be possible due to prohibitive travel costs, and improves access to learning (Martin, 2005; Rose, Furner, Hall, Montgomery, Katsavras, ; Clarke, 2000; Townes-Young ; Ewing, 2005; West, 1999). Role Playing Role playing is a methodology derived from sociodrama that may be used to help students understand the more subtle aspects of literature, social studies, and even some aspects of science or mathematics. Further, it can help them become more interested and involved, not only learning about the material, but learning also to integrate the knowledge in action, by addressing problems, exploring alternatives, and seeking novel and creative solutions. According to Blatner (2008), role playing is the best way to develop the skills of initiative, communication, problem-solving, self-awareness, and working cooperatively in teams, and these are above all–certainly above the learning of mere facts, many if not most of which will be obsolete or irrelevant in a few years–will help these young people e prepared for dealing with the challenges of the Twenty-First Century. According to Pollock et al (2006), learning to participate is an important skill for humanities and social science s students to learn in today’s multi-stakeholder world. The role play method develops a greater understanding of the complexity of professional practice and enables students to develop skills to engage in multi-stakeholder negotiations within the controlled environment of the classroom. Role play in the classroom can be implemented in a number of ways. It can involve online elements as well as face-to-face interactions. The length of the process can also vary according to the aims of the activity. This guide will outline role play techniques found to be most useful for the social science classroom at a tertiary level. Role play in the classroom involves students actively in the learning process by enabling them to act as stakeholders in an imagined or real scenario. It is a technique that complements the traditional lecture and assignment format of tertiary level social science learning. In a role play, the teacher selects a particular event or situation that illuminates key theories or may be of importance to the topic of study. Students are given detailed background readings and assigned stakeholder roles as preparation. The format of interaction between stakeholders can be varied and may depend on time or resources available. The role play is concluded with a debriefing or reflection stage which reinforces the concepts introduced by the role play. Video Presentation Bassili (2006) conducted a study of college freshmen in a psychology course in order to determine whether they preferred face-to-face or streamed-video lecture delivery as a learning aid. He found that a majority of the students preferred the online video lectures. These findings imply that videotaped content, far from being a less effective vehicle for instruction, might actually increase learner motivation and interest in course material. Other articles outline the advantages of taping learner performances and asking students to watch and reflect upon these recordings. For example, some scholars have found that using videos as reflective diaries can promote critical thinking and reflection and thereby enhance learning development. Researchers have found that making reflective videos can benefit both teachers (Barton and Haydn 2006; Gebhard 2005) and students (Triggs and John 2004). Levy and Kennedy (2004) found evidence for this assertion within the specific context of the language learning classroom. They used computer video capture to record students' behavior during their audio conferencing study of Italian as a foreign language. The researchers found that these recordings became an effective tool for assisting students in visualizing and subsequently correcting their errors. Several other articles have discussed the potential impact of using videos in foreign language study. Herron, Cole, and Corrie (2000), for example, offer evidence that showing videos in the classroom allows instructors to expose language learners to authentic cultural information. Moreover, research suggests that Internet-based audiovisual resources can be effective language learning tools. Hanson-Smith (2004) describes the pedagogical benefits of using online videos as in-class learning resources. In addition, she lauds the fact that the Internet is increasing access to professional audiovisual resources that are free, authentic, and suitable for language learning development. Finally, many scholars have noted the benefits of implementing a video production component in language classes. For example, at the college level, Katchen, Morris, and Savova (2005) have explored the possibility of using video production to engage language learners, asking students to produce vocabulary-focused videos. They contend that the benefit of their approach is twofold. First, it allows students to produce videos using grammatical forms and lexical items that are relevant to them, increasing the chance that these forms and terms will be retained. Second, it facilitates the creation of learning resources for future students. Association of learning styles to teaching methodology In the study conducted by Csapo & Hayen (2006), it states that a mismatch between the learning style of faculty and students has been shown to increase the disparitybetween how faculty teaches and how students learn. This mismatch results in an ineffective learningprocess in the classroom. â€Å"The notion that allcognitive skills are identical at the collegiate level orin different training programs smacks of arroganceand elitism by either sanctioning one group's style oflearning while discrediting the styles of others orignoring individual differences altogether â€Å"Teachers did differ in their teaching styles and the results suggest an association between teaching styles and learning styles Based on the study of Chiya (2003), divergers are characterized by concrete experience (feeling) and reflective observation (watching) while assimilators utilized abstract conceptualization (thinking) and reflective observation (watching). It was obvious that divergers and assimilators both learn through reflective observation or through watching. According to Evans (2004), these differences in teaching styles may also have an impact on areas such as classroom arrangements, the organization and assessment of activities, teacher interactions with students and academically approaches, such as the use of questioning (Evans, 2004). Evans (2004) also stated that several teachers of today are looking at how to shift their lessons to meet new education purposes. However, discussions are still more teacher-centered than student-centered in some classrooms meaning, the lessons are still based on the preferences of the teacher rather than the students. The following information are synthesize from different local and foreign related literatures and studies: Learning style is unique in every individual. Learning is the process of acquiring knowledge. As we know, individuals are unique. Each in every one of us is different and so also our learning styles. Learning styles are the approach on how an individual grasp knowledge. There are four types of learning style: Converger, Diverger, Assimilator, and Accomodator. Each type of learning style is different in terms of the way they acquire knowledge. Convergers or Type I learners excel in making practical applications of ideas and in using deductive reasoning to solve problems. They use Active experimentation (doing) and abstract conceptualization (thinking) as their approaches in transforming experience and grasping experience, respectively. They learn from thinking. Divergers or Type II learners are characterized by concrete experience (feeling) and reflective observation (watching). They use imagination and see things in different points of view. They are learning from feeling. Assimilators or Type III learners on the other hand use inductive reasoning in creating theoretical models. They utilized abstract conceptualization (thinking) and reflective observation (watching) as their preferred approaches. They learn from watching and listening. Accomodators or Type IV learners are good in actively engaging with the world and actually doing things rather than merely reading about and studying them. They are characterized by concrete experience (feeling) and active experimentation (doing). They learn from doing. Teaching on the other hand, is the process of giving out information. Teaching is the means of providing knowledge to individuals. Same as learning styles, teaching methodologies are also unique for every teacher or instructor. Most instructors tend to stick with a specific teaching methodology. Teaching methodology has a great impact on the students. In association to learning styles, the preferred teaching methodologies. The review of the literature indicated howimportant understanding learning styles and the role of learning styles in the teaching/learning process was for effective teaching. Research Paradigm (Kolb diagrams updated May 2006) | Most Preferred teaching methodology in terms of: A. Didactics B. Skills | Shown in the figure above was a typical presentation of Kolb’s to continuum: the east-west called the Processing Continuum (how we approach a task), and the north-south axis is called the Perception Continuum (our emotional response, or how we think or feel about it. ). These learning styles are the combination of two lines of axis (continuums) each formed between what Kolb calls dialectically related modes of grasping experience (doing or watching), and transforming experience (feeling or thinking). An individual internally decide whether he/she wish to  do  or  watch, and  at the same time  decide whether to  think  or  feel. The result of these two decisions produces and helps to form their learning style. The individual chooses a way of grasping the experience, which defines his/her approach to it, and chooses a way to transform the experience into something meaningful and usable, which defines the emotional response to the experience. Having knowledge about the learning styles, the appropriate teaching methodology in terms of didactics and skills for a specific learning style can be determined and can be used for effective learning. Research Hypothesis On the basis of the questions proposed in this study the following hypotheses was tested: a. There is no significant difference between the learning styles of sophomore nursing students. b. There is no significant relationship on the different learning style between skills and didactics. The main variables of the study The different learning styles were the independent variable and the dependent variable was the most preferred teaching methodologies of sophomore nursing students in terms of didactics and skills. Definition of terms Conceptual definition: Learning Styles – various approaches or ways of learning Accommodator – a person who is willing to adapt oneself to other people’s convenience. Assimilator – a person who responds to new situations in conformity with what is already available to consciousness. Converger – one who has special ability in answering rational, unimaginative questions. Diverger – one who is capable of thinking imaginatively beyond the ordinary. Teaching Methodology – the types of principles and methods used for instruction. Didactics – teaching method  that follows a consistent scientific approach. Lecture discussion -an informative talk given as before an audience or class and usually prepared beforehand. Recitation – a written matter that is recited from memory. Power point presentation – The presentation is a collection of individual slides that contain information on a topic. Case presentation – refers to the collection and presentation of detailed information about a particular participant or small group, frequently including the accounts of subjects themselves. Brainstorming- Brainstorming is an informal way of generating topics to write about, or points to make about your topic. Students should simply open their minds to whatever pops into them. E-learning – the delivery of a learning, training or education program by electronic means. E-learning involves the use of a computer or electronic device in some way to provide training, educational or learning material. Group work – a ethod, used by professional social workers, of aiding a group or members of a group toward individual adjustment and increased participation in community activity by exploiting the mechanisms of group life. Reporting- to relate or tell about; present. Role playing – refers to the changing of one's behaviour to assume a role, either unconsciously to fill a social role, or consciously to act out an adopted role. Skills – teaching the learned  capacity to carry out pre-determined results often with the minimum outlay of  time,  energy, or both. Demonstration – the act of proving by the syllogistic process, or the proof itself. An exhibition; proof; especially, proof beyond the possibility of doubt; indubitable evidence, to the senses or reason. Video presentation – A video clip is a small section of a larger video presentation. A series of video frames are run in succession to produce a short, animated video. This compilation of video clips results in a video presentation. Operational Definition: Learning Styles – the method by which an individual acquire knowledge. Accommodator – they tend to get information by themselves; they can easily adapt to sudden changes. Assimilator – individuals who learn by thinking through ideas; they need certain evidences before making judgments. Converger – individuals who learn though practical application. Diverger – is an individual who learns through observation; they love to listen and share ideas. Teaching Methodologies – the strategies employed in teaching. Didactics – are teaching methods used in the classroom setting. Lecture discussion – giving information on a group of people or a class usually to educate. Recitation – giving an answer on a given question using what is previously learned. Power point presentation – the presentation of a slide show made up of slides containing information on a topic commonly used in giving information about a concept. Case presentation – a case specific presentation of data and information gathered from an individual or group of people. Brainstorming – a method of sharing ideas by â€Å"throwing† in whatever pops out of their mind about a certain subject matter. E-learning – method of imparting knowledge through the use of modern electronic devices or softwares. Group work – a method of sharing ideas and combining said ideas to form a unified body of information more commonly used by students. Reporting- presenting a detailed but brief information about a subject. Role playing – adopting and acting out the role or personality of someone else. Skills – a method of teaching the ability to develop a procedure repeatedly. Demonstration – a method of imparting knowledge by showing how something is being done. Video presentation – the use of recorded video or a series of video clips to impart knowledge on a certain subject matter. CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research design This study used descriptive correlational study as the research design. According to Polit and Beck (2008), â€Å"descriptive research is the second broad class of non-experimental studies and its purpose is to observe, describe and document aspects of a situation as it naturally occurs and sometimes to serve as a starting point for hypothesis generating or theory development. † This study described the learning styles of Sophomore Nursing students and their most preferred teaching methodology. It also determined if learning styles were associated to their most preferred teaching methodology. Population and Sample The respondents of this study were sophomore nursing students of Far Eastern University within the school year 2010 to 2011. The sophomore nursing students had a total population of 630. Using Sloven’s formula, the sample population of 245 was drawn. Table 1. Frequency Distribution and Percentage of the 6 sections included in the study Section| Frequency| Percentage (%) | BSN 313| 36| 14. 7| BSN 302| 48| 19. 6| BSN 304| 34| 13. 9| BSN 303| 48| 19. 6| BSN 305| 37| 15. 1| BSN SB3| 42| 17. 1| Total| 245| 100| The researchers used convenience sampling method in choosing the sections that were included in the study basing on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Included in the study were sophomore students who were on deck during Mondays, those who were present during the data gathering and those who were willing to cooperate. Those excluded in the study were freshmen, junior and senior nursing students and those from other institutes, sections of sophomore nursing students who were on deck during Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays, Fridays and Saturdays and those who were absent during the data gathering procedure. All of the invalid questionnaires answered by the respondents were not included in the tallying. Research Locale The study was conducted at Far Eastern University specifically in the Institute of Nursing. It is a Private non-sectarian University, located in Nicanor Reyes Street, Sampaloc Manila which was suited for the respondents. The researchers had chosen Far Eastern University as a research locale because the behavior, experiences and characteristics that the researchers sought to observe fit the students of FEU specifically nursing students. Furthermore, FEU had adequate diversity or mix of students to achieve the research goal. In addition, entrance to the site was possible and access to the respondents can be granted. Research Instruments The instrument had two parts. The first part of the instrument was Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory (LSI) which was a standard questionnaire constructed by Kolb’s (1985. It was a 12 item self-description questionnaire that would determine the learning style of a particular person. After taking Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory and summing up the total number for each learning styles, it gave the difference between Concrete Experience (CE) and Abstract Conceptualization (AC) and the difference between Active Experimentation (AE) and Reflective Observation (RO). After determining the differences of each learning styles, it was plotted on the paradigm to determine the student’s learning styles as Diverger, Converger, Assimilator and Accommodator. The second part of the instrument was a self-made instrument. It was a structured questionnaire in which respondents were asked to choose their most preferred teaching methodology both in acquiring skills and learning from lectures. Validation of instrument The second part of the instrument was validated by three experts: the Associate Dean of the Institute of Nursing along with two other faculty members who had been on the academe for 5 years. The instrument was validated in terms of its face and content validity. A pilot test was conducted to ten (10) nursing students, after which the respondents were excluded from the actual data gathering procedure. They were able to answer all the questions in the instrument which yielded good results. Data Collection Procedure A letter addressed to Dr. Glenda S. Arquiza, Dean of the Institute of Nursing, was forwarded to ask permission to conduct the study. Moreover, the researchers of the study coordinated with the Level II coordinators to acquire the schedule of the selected respondents. The researcher used structured paper and pencil instrument in which the respondents were guided by a topic guide of questions to be asked and rank order questions which the respondent rank target concepts along a continuum, such as most to least. The respondents were asked to answer the Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory. From the sections present during the data gathering, the researchers used conveniece sampling in choosing the included sections for them to come up with the 245 respondents. The inventories were distributed by some of the members of the research team to the selected respondents and were collected right away after they finish answering the inventory. The data collection was conducted last July 17, 2010. All of the instruments which were valid and with complete answers were all included in the study. Statistical Treatment To organize the data collected, statistical tables were presented. This made the presentation of the data systematic and readily understandable. Furthermore, the following statistical formulas were used to analyze the data collected. The Sloven’s Formula was used to determine the number of minimum respondents to utilize. Its formula is as follows: n=N(1+N*e2) Where: n = number of samples N = total population e = margin of error To answer the first and the second problem statement which were â€Å"What is the learning style of sophomore Nursing students† and â€Å"What are the preferred teaching methodology of sophomore nursing students† Frequency & Percentage Distribution was used. Its formula is as follows: Percentage (%) = fnx 100 where: f = number of times the item occurs (frequency) n = total number of items To answer statement of the problem number 2, weighted mean was used to determine the average of the students who preferred a particular teaching methodology in terms of skills and didactics: Its formula is as follows: X=? fxn where: X = mean ? = summation f = number of times the items occur x = value of the item n = total number of items To answer statement of the problem number 3, â€Å"Is there a significant difference between the different learning styles† chi-square goodness of fit test was used. Its for